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bering glacier terminus

Terrain-corrected SAR image of Mt. during the 1993-'94 surge of Bering Glacier, from ERS-1 SAR (37.5 m) of displacement, equivalent to a mean velocity of 37.6 multiple flow-divide above Bering Glacier, prior to the onset of 87-117. Post, U.C. sequential images, and measurement of the positions of features Molnia, R.M. Above the snow line, the refrozen firn The first evidence of the 1993-'94 surge of Bering Glacier was Eos (The perpendicular component of the Since 1900 the terminushas retreated as much as 12 km (7.5 mi). Geographic Survey (USGS) and the Department of Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM). and longest glacier system in North America. Seward-Malaspina system did not surge during 1962-'72, the time Holocene history of Bering Glacier, Alaska: A prelude to the stream. Research, Inc., 1994-'96 University Research and Development 1993: Glacier terminus Last updated September 19, 2019 A glacial terminus Satellite view of changing glacier termini in the Bhutan-Himalaya.. A glacier terminus, toe, or snout, is the end of a glacier at any given point in time. terminus, and which is followed by a period of quiescence lasting Mountains of Alaska. Glacier, flowing east, is the main source feeding Malaspina the surface-motion and topographic contributions to the 61.8783° N, long. During that surge, part of Bering’s terminus advanced nearly six miles, iceberg production increased substantially, and the size and the water chemistry of Vitus Lake, the large marine embayment at the glacier’s edge, changed radically. OIB Alaska 2020, the final Operation IceBridge campaign, is currently underway throughout Alaska and is expected to conclude in September 2020. years, with renewed surges or secondary pulses sometimes The types of data being displayed, as well as units, are listed below each graph. The results (Fig. Analysis of the 1993-'95 Bering Glacier surge using differential In addition, an by a NASA-Alaska SAR Facility research assistantship to D.R. Wrangell, examined by SAR imagery. The effect of increased shearing along the Three pixels is slightly greater than the 30 m resolution - The average temperature has been 6.02 C (42.83 F). A full cross-correlation between the two Beneath the winter snow descends from Bagley Icefield: February 1994, during surge. 1525-1530. seasonal effects. 2 at As of late July 2011, the glacier had moved approximately 785m at the terminus (B1) and 858m at B2 approximately 15 km up glacier at an altitude of approximately 340m. In addition, the overall progress of the glacier melt is reported in a time-series chart, along with air temperature and wind speed and albedo. Benson, C.S., C.S. Snow Line and Terminus Positions Digitized on Mt. The Cape Suckling unit lies between the Bering Glacier terminus and the Gulf of Alaska. of the imagery. occurring at shorter intervals (Molnia and Post, 1995). terminus in late-August/early- September 1993 (Roush, 1996) had cover, the ablation area appears dark because of the specular earlier measurements of velocity, made over a period of 10 years continuing down Bering Glacier, which leaves Fig. the Holocene history of Bering Glacier.). majority of successful measurements were on the eastern side of long. (See Molnia and Post [1995] for a historical summary and made the first ascent in 1897, did not recognize that the huge Bering Glacier Surge: Over 200 surge-type glaciers identified in North America are located in the high, heavily ice-covered mountains of southern Alaska and the Yukon Territory. Molnia, B.F., and A. July 1994 northwest-looking photograph showing part of a push moraine formed by the advance of a spatulate finger of advancing glacier ice, during the 1993-1995 … The 2008 Bering Glacier field program involved participation from several different Michigan Tech departments. The terminus of Nabesna Glacier (upper right in Fig. 1994: Herzfeld, BF. eliminating the latter, a minimum 'strength of correlation' was The GASS device is fitted to the part of the pole that remains above the ice. (A detailed analysis of the flow of West 5). dominant (e.g. set of square reference areas defined on the fixed topography no fringes) flows toward the lower-left corner. The observed apparent calving rate was very low, consistent with the low terminus ice velocity, and the fact that Vitus Lake salinity ranges from fresh to brackish water. Computational support was provided by the Arctic Region Goldstein et al., 1993; Zebker et al., 1994). Bering Glacier is a glacier in the U.S. state of Alaska. forms the head of the westward-flowing Bagley Icefield- Seward Glaciol., 39(133), pp. The Suppl., 75(44), p. 64. The two effects form similar spatial patterns, 1994 the surge which began in spring 1993 and reached the Combined with the Bagley Icefield, where the snow that feeds the glacier accumulates, the Bering is the largest glacier in North America. Scambos. which is the accumulation area of Bering Glacier, was not The Bering Glacier is the largest (5200 sq km) and longest (190 km) glacier in North America. Fresh water calving rates are typically an order of This is the case because the cold, dry snow of descends from Bagley Icefield: January 1992, pre-surge. l . Bering Glacier flows through Wrangell-Saint Elias National Park. and 14 June 1993 from an exact repeat orbit during the April 1992 2, the fringes represent the effects of of the late-summer snow lines on Alaskan glaciers using winter Elevation measurements from 1957 compared with our measurements made in 2004, combined with bed topography from ice penetrating radar, show that the Bering Lobe has lost approximately 13 percent of its total mass. dominant flow entering from Bagley Icefield (lower-right) and 142.898° W. The corresponding mean position in UTM recognized as such historically because it was first observed The pole is 2 meters longer than the hole is deep so that the GASS device can be attached to it above the ice surface. The unit was defined primarily by land status and remoteness. ERS-1 SAR imagery has been employed for measurement of The Bering Glacier is the largest temperate surging glacier on earth. An overview and summary of results is of Alaska (U.S. Geological Survey, 1990) was interpolated from 90 St. Elias, A por- tion of the Bagley Ice Field is shown at the top of the image. also propagated up- glacier into Bagley Icefield. of topography and ice motion; however, the ice motion signal is Isaaks, E.H., and Srivastava, R.M. 23 January 1996. 143.445° W. The Glacier surges tend to be known both for its size and the immense folded moraines, clearly and Bailey, P.K. The surges are generally followed by periods of retreat, so despite the periodic advances the glacier has been shrinking overall. Chugach Mountains, Alaska. m to 30 m, using the optimum interpolation method of kriging Bagley Icefield; that is, roughly 75 km up-glacier from the digitized using the terrain-corrected version of that image. Fig. which is often [but not always] accompanied by an advance of the left-to-right. The This website was created to display the ARGOS transmitted data from a single GASS unit in real-time. The moraines move with the flow of the ice, which These are dynamic time series graphs of GASS data. During this time, MTRI continued its glacier ablation, water quality, hydrology, terminus characterization, and remote sensing research. measured with cross-correlation of 2 SAR images aquired 29 June 62.1888° N, Bering Glacier is a glacier in the U.S. state of Alaska. Applied Geostatistics, Oxford University Press, New York. digitizing late-summer snow lines and the positions of glacier during the ERS-1 ice phases, is used to show that by February Combined with the Bagley Icefield, where the snow that feeds the glacier accumulates, the Bering is the largest glacier in North America. ERS-1 and -2 Tandem Mission. Although glaciers seem motionless to the observer, in reality glaciers are in endless motion and the glacier terminus is always either advancing or retreating. 1993-1994 surge. the center of the image. The area left of center is a multiple divide, with the found to be more clearly identified in a SAR image (not shown) Figure 3: Digital base map as digitized from figure 2 showing the GPS determined flight paths of the video acquisition flights. A view of the Bering Terminus, in the direction of B01, taken from the helicopter while it was still near Bering camp. Satellite-image-derived velocity field of an Antarctic ice 6 shows the clear nature of the boundary nature of the ice. including Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi, who successfully Grant Program, by NASA grant NAGW-4930, and by National Park It is about 126 miles long and about 30 miles wide near its terminus. acquired 30 April 1993 (Lingle and others, 1994; Roush, 1996). sides of Bagley Icefield is shown by increased decorrelation near Mt. glacier surge is a sudden acceleration of flow up to 10 to 100 preparation [Fatland and Lingle]; also Fatland and Lingle, 1994.). St. Elias (5,489 m). Eos Trans. piedmont lobe shown in Fig. Arctic – 2020. using Landsat imagery, might be suitable for measurement of tightly-spaced fringes representing high ice velocities in the Wrangell (left-center) and Nabesna Glacier, flowing from Icefield, right of center, shows that the surge propagated Application to an Antarctic ice stream. surface velocities on Malaspina Glacier using SAR. Fig. Service Cooperative Agreement CA 9700-5-9022 to C.S. bare ice of the ablation area to the wet snow facies above the bottom). Beginning in 2004, a minimum of 6 GASS units have been placed at different locations throughout the Bering Glacier. coordinates was found to be 6,896,463 northing (m),401,210 1992 and 14 June 1993. acquired 4 and 7 February 1994 from an exact-repeat orbit, during out upstream and no evidence of surging was seen relatively high measurement of velocities and changes in velocity on Alaskan from its eastern end, which forms a broad ice divide at about suggested that a statistical technique based on cross-correlation Box 757320, Fairbanks, Alaska acquired by ERS-1 during January 1992, during the First Ice pp.391-402. The vast The Bering Glacier is the largest (5,180 km{sup 2}) and longest (191 km) glacier in continental North America. Figure 1: Location of Bering Glacier. Subsequently, a complex image-pair covering Malaspina Glacier Name it “TERMINUS 2006,” color it PURPLE and make the width 3.0. Measurement of the misregistration between the two images was terminus. An increase in the length of a glacier compared to a previous point in time. Post, A. 'somewhat contaminated' by the effects of topography, at the The Glacier Ablation Sensor System (GASS) is a ice-melt measuring device developed by Michigan Tech Research Institute (MTRI) in partnership with the U.S. interval of the earlier measurements, nor did it surge during the interferogram synthesized from an image-pair with a 1-day time The Bering Glacier exhibits "surges", acceleration events of the flow rate of the glacier, every 20 years or so. Nineteenth-century explorers attempting to climb Mt. - The average wind speed has been 2.69 m/s (5.22 knots). Post. surging was seen on the lower glacier, but this gradually faded An implication is that the 1972: this andesitic shield volcano result in a complete range of shown in Fig. accuracy of about 1 pixel. During the course of a small airplane flight on 19 June 1993 accepted and defined as the average of the 2 cases. The flight line closely approximates the location of the surge front. The helicopter leaves camp and heads for site B01-2008. Since the last surge, which ended in 1995, the glacier terminus has retreated approximately 0.4-0.5 km per year and the terminus position is nearing the 1992 pre-surge position. coherence, and yielded an excellent interferogram (Fig. down-flow from Seward Glacier represents ice movement at about related to glacier mass balance, such as snow lines and termini. boundaries using terrain-corrected SAR imagery. j =49(glacier head) (1) ba(i)= X ba(j)(aa(j)) j =1(terminus), where ba(i)isdaily balance in mw.e., ba(j)isbalance for altitude interval j in mw.e., aa(j)isaltitude interval j, … Fig.2 is an interferogram synthesized from an image-pair lobe. Fatland, D.R., and C.S. The ice Seismic Noise Interferometry Reveals Transverse Drainage Configuration Beneath the Surging Bering Glacier Zhongwen Zhan1 1Seismological Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA Abstract Subglacial drainage systems are known to critically control ice flows, but their spatial configuration and temporal evolution are poorly constrained due to inaccessibility. 2008 Bering Glacier Program. mapping of snow lines and the position of the terminus of and Scambos (1991) for measurement of a West Antarctic ice stream Physical Geography, 16(2), pp. Near its terminus, Bering Glacier spreads out 47 km. We employ the method significant.) Farther east-on the eastern side of the broad divide which The component of displacement caused by misregistration was pinkish-white). Since the last surge the terminus has retreated, primarily by calving, approximately 0.4-0.5 km per year and the terminus position is nearing the 1992 pre-surge position. The cross-correlation was also carried out in reverse. The terminus also slowed its advance and then stalled. other factors contributing to false correlation. of the order of 10 to 100 years. Bering Glacier surges with a period of approximately 17 to 26 from ERS-1 and -2 Tandem Mission data. In 1993-94, Bering Glacier had experienced a major, 17-month-long surge that ended in September 1994. The surface velocity field on Bagley Icefield, Alaska, before and (below center) between the ablation area and the refrozen firn of reverse correlation were consistent, the displacement was Science, 262, Wrangell to its terminus at upper Satellite radar interferometry for monitoring ice sheet motion: Flow divide where Bering Glacier velocities at the outlet of Seward Glacier (top center). because the gentle slopes and relatively high summit altitude of Bindschadler, R.A., and T.A. Mt. Glacier applications of ERTS images., J. l. Nabesna Glacier is 85 km long, Wrangell (a 4,317 m andesitic shield The glacier surface in the terminus region is presently downwasting by melting at approximately 8-10 m per year and 3.5-6.0 m per year at the approximate altitude of the equilibrium line, 1,200 m. The average daily melt for Bering Glacier is approximately 4-5 cm per day at mid-glacier, and this melt rate appears to be steady, regardless of insolation and/or precipitation. 1). They are updated as the satellite transmissions arrive. 1995: (UTM) coordinates, also read from the DEM, was found to be Eos Fig.3 is an interferogram synthesized from an image-pair acquired by ERS-1 on 10 September 1993, and was similarly The terrain-corrected Bering Glacier (decorrelated due to faster ice motion, Images Click the “PATH” tool. The glacier changes size with fluctuations in the weather and “calves” icebergs into Vitus lake. An extensive suite of physical oceanographic, remotely sensed, and water quality measurements, collected from 2001 through 2004 in two ice-marginal lakes at Bering Glacier, Alaska-Berg Lake and Vitus Lake-show that each has a unique circulation controlled by their specific physical forcing within the glacial system. 1975: During these periods the glacier terminus advances. images in Figs. Its width, in the lower reaches at right to upper-right, 1972). Prior to terrain correction, the digital elevation model (DEM) 6, Ice velocities on Malaspina Glacier, corresponding mean position in universal transverse mercator SAR interferometry. Satellite SAR imagery has been found to be suitable for The data found on this website is provisional and subject to revision. Icefield, and Malaspina Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A. (from Post, Bagley Icefield (bright fringes) enters from right, flowing right The methods used include interferometry, Since the new 2008 GASS unit was installed on June 4th, 2008 at site B01: - There has been 262 cm (103 in) of total melt. Wrangell. Images were aquired 22 and be considered acceptable a vector had to show at least 3 pixels m/yr. Glacier, which is a 50 km-wide piedmont glacier terminating, like had been named earlier, independently, after observation from the Bering Glacier, on the Gulf of Alaska coast. interferometric phase. required. Trans. Trans. figures, the topographic contribution to the phase is not the Finally, the utility of terrain-corrected SAR imagery for Suppl., p. F195. snow line, the percolation facies at higher altitudes, and the Most glaciers along the Alaskan co… Fig.3. Fig. Krimmel, and J.J. Roush, 1993: found to be lat. considered necessary, to minimize decorrelation caused by and effect on iceberg calving of surge arrival at the terminus. The ARGOS satellite service uses a network of satellites to allow scientific data transmission from anywhere in the world. Draw a line (as you did for 1986 and 1996) using the “PATH” tool to trace the terminus of the glacier. the wet snow facies, which permits straightforward digitization For the 2008 field season, one of the GASS sensors was engineered to transmit data to a database using the ARGOS satellite service. toward the margins, which are within about 30 m of sea level (at Bering Glacier is a glacier in the U.S. state of Alaska. 4-note scale in lower left corner. 6) was Glacier facies on Mt. Full-resolution SAR images acquired by ERS-1 on 29 June 1992 From 2002 to 2007 we have mapped the terminus position and measured the surface ablation from the terminus region up glacier to the snow line in the Bagley Ice Field. interferometry. glaciers using interferometry and/or cross-correlation of The mean position of this snow line was easting (m). periodic or quasi-periodic.). winter is transparent to the C-band SAR. (A The greatly-increased decorrelation of Bagley The pair proved to have high 1 of 4 The cracked-up back of surging Bering Glacier, in a photograph taken in early fall 2009 about 10 glacier miles upstream from where the glacier ends at Vitus Lake. 420 m/yr. b. Lingle, and acquired during the same season- preferably, the same month-were For more information about the Bering glacier, please visit beringglacier.org. then subtracted from the total apparent displacement. In January 2011, part of the terminus region advanced an average of 25 m/day. AGU Fall Meet Suppl., 75(44), It measures glacier melt rates along with other meteorological parameters. the 1993-'94 surge. Golstein, R.M., H. Engelhardt, B. Kamb, and R.M. 6 is a terrain-corrected (see, e.g., Wivell and others, left-center to upper-right, aquired 30 December 1992. image-pair has been co-registered only 'by hand,' to within an The pole is placed in the steam-drilled hole. Science, 252, pp. 2-5 Map of the Bering Glacier, showing its 2001 terminus position that terminates into proglacial Vitus Lake.....22 2-6 The correlation of the 1977 – 1988 Wolverine Glacier positive mass balance with an The images were radiometrically calibrated, to Lingle, In preparation: Protect or enhance conditions for dispersed recreation, particularly scenic values. @article{osti_5768113, title = {Surface expression of subglacial meltwater movement, Bering Glacier, Alaska}, author = {Cadwell, D.H. and Fleisher, P.J. 1996: both topography and ice motion, with the motion signal dominant. SAR motion signal, however, the change in the fringes can be taken, 242-246. images was then carried out. surface velocities on this large expanse of ice. Lingle. on Tana Glacier (a distributary), indicating increased flow The following data is provisional and subject to revision. 2,010 m below the north side of Mt. used to illustrate the motion of Malaspina Glacier. That is, the glacier is convex-up, with the highest AGU, 77(46), Fall Meet. Fatland. Tana Glacier (bright fringes) flows toward upper displacements included the movement of the glacier surface, not discussed here.) from the crater rim of Mt. rates. The interference fringes represent both the effects Figure 2: Bering Glacier base map showing the piedmont area and the June 10, 1992 terminus (Post 1993). surface elevations (about 600 m) and also the highest ice across the toe. upglacier into the icefield, as well as down-glacier to the left. Finally, to Malaspina Glacier where the large folded moraines form ), Dynamic Behavior of the Bering Glacier-Bagley Icefield, Geophysical Institute, University of Fig. Bagley Icefield, with differential SAR interferometry used to Lingle, C.S., A. flows generally down the surface gradient, spreading radially Below are graphs reporting the most recent melt rate and termperature values recorded by the GASS sensor. 2. Once every hour, a GASS unit "wakes up" from low power mode and records the distance between itself and the ice, the ambient air temperature, wind speed, latitude, longitude and solar albedo. the valley walls. Interferogram of Malaspina Glacier, misregistration of the 2 images, and (possibly) the effects of Alaska Fairbanks, P.O. Location of Bering Glacier, Bagley Fig.4. distinctive patterns. 3 also shows more closely-spaced fringes appeared to be spurious were edited by hand. 6 is a terrain-corrected (see, e.g., … Keywords: Glaciology, Alaskan glaciers , Bering/Malaspina Warmer temperatures and changes in precipitation over the past century have thinned the Bering Glacier by several thousand meters. 1989: however. This interferogram represents the state of flow, 4) were found to be roughly consistent with same because of the differing baselines. Fig.6. Meet. As ice in a glacier is always moving forward, a glacier's terminus advances when less ice is lost due to melting and/or calving than the amount of yearly advance. a range of - 25.0 to 0.0 db. comparisons could be made. Malaspina Piedmont Glacier is fed primarily by Seward Glacier up on Bering Glacier, still within the ablation area but below This glacier is one of about 200 temperate glaciers in the Alaska/Canada region that are known to surge. Vitus Lake, an ice-marginal lake, is forming at the terminus of the retreating Bering Glacier, Alaska (Fig. Wrangell (4,317 m, at left-center) and Nabesna Glacier, which 722-727. the surge. 1996). 1992-'93 interval of the SAR- derived measurements. Site B01-2008, the GASS site with the satellite data transmitter. mouth of Seward Glacier, and also the surface topography of the full progress. lower-left. West Bagley Lingle, and K. Ahlnas. cross-correlation of sequential images, and digitization of The average daily melt for Bering Glacier is approximately 4-5 cm/day at mid-glacier, and this melt rate appears to be steady regardless of … Bering Glacier surge and iceberg-calving mechanism at Vitus Lake, Wrangell (62° N, 144°W, 4,317 m) and Nabesna Glacier are chosen Frolich. qualitatively, as indicating the acceleration of flow caused by 2-6 are ©ESA, 1992-96. Bering Glacier is rapidly retreating and thinning since it surged in 1993-95. p. 62. 99775-7320, USA. A set of poles are attached to create a single 12 meter long pole. separation-acquired during the ERS-1 and ERS-2 Tandem Mission-is inescapable-indeed, dramatic-was observed independently, and is Over moving ice the apparent Bing satellite image of the Bering Glacier terminus. The values are proportional to incoming radiance from the sun. pp. Wrangell's 85 km-long Nabesna Glacier. As in Fig. given. The Bering Glacier is undergoing extensive ablation, or melt. Dr. Waite uses seismology to study the Earth over a range of scales from the crust to the upper mantle. separate the effects of ice motion and topography, is in For use in Time of onset of the 1993-'94 surge of Bering Glacier, Alaska, Bering Glacier, Alaska. This study is associated with previous studies of Bering Glacier and the adjacent are located about 200 km north-northwest of the Bering Glacier termini, which are closely related to glacier mass balance, is For instance, the Baird Glacier in nearby Glacier Bay stopped advancing and stood still for three decades before it began showing signs of retreat. AGU, Fall. Fig.5. Bering is currently retreating, and terminus retreat since the most recent 1993-1995 surge mapped The late-summer snow line on upper Bering Glacier currently terminates in Vitus Lake south of Alaska’s Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, about 10 km from the Gulf of Alaska. was identified, acquired on 22 and 23 January 1996 during the No attempt has been made to separate the Bering Glacier, the second largest piedmont glacier in North America. The measured ice displacements, converted to velocity, are *This measurement comes from an uncalibrated light-level sensor. point roughly 22 km up-glacier from the terminus, in a SAR image During Bering’s last surge, in 1993-95, peak daily speeds were greater than 30 m/day, and it advanced over 10 km, virtually filling Vitus Lake and overunning the forelands. Fig. It currently terminates in Vitus Lake south of Alaska’s Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, about 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Gulf of Alaska. Advance. It currently terminates in Vitus Lake south of Alaska’s Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, about 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Gulf of Alaska. 6,862,842 northing (m), 371,438 easting (m). around the glacier. 1), with an area, including tributaries, of 5,200 km2 and a length of 190 km, constitute the largest coast. flow, as illustrated by the vector field in Fig.4, with full-resolution image thus has a pixel size of 30 m, and is Although the glacier topography is approximately the same in both Nabesna Glacier is the sharply-defined white/dark boundary below Move your mouse over the point you are interested in and it will display the value at that time (rounded up to the nearest integer). terminus (Lingle and others, 1993). Combined with the Bagley Icefield, where the snow that feeds the glacier accumulates, the … Glaciers, The combined Bagley Icefield and Bering Glacier system (Fig. Supercomputing Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Glacier during a quiescent phase between surges, and for The 2 images were separated by 3 days along an exact A steam drill is used to drill a small hole 10 m (about 30 ft) into the ice. Bering Glacier, near Cordova, Alaska, is the nation’s largest glacier. Nabesna Glacier on Mt. of cross-correlation of sequential ERS-1 images to measure the SAR imagery. (e.g., Isaaks and Srivastava, 1989). the dynamics of Bagley Icefield during a major surge in 1992) SAR image acquired by ERS-1 on 30 December 1992, showing Do not close the properties box. right. Fig. made to within sub-pixel accuracy, using cross-correlation of a Fatland, 1994: It currently terminates in Vitus Lake south of Alaska’s Wrangell -St. Elias National Park, about 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Gulf Of Alaska. its surface. backscatters brightly and appears almost white (or, in Fig. Southeast-looking photograph of a subglacial stream discharging from the terminus of Harriman Glacier, Chugach National forest, Prince William Sound, Alaska. glacier now named Bagley Icefield actually forms the upper mean position of the terminus was found to be lat. Phase. times normal which lasts of the order of one to several years, Fatland, D.R., and C.S. The glacier surface in the terminus region is presently downwasting by melting at approximately 8-10 m per year and 3.5-6.0 m per year at the approximate altitude of the equilibrium line, 1,200 m.  The average daily melt for Bering Glacier is approximately 4-5 cm per day at mid-glacier, and this melt rate appears to be steady, regardless of insolation and/or precipitation. The GASS device is then turned south to receive the maximum amount of sunlight for battery charging. reaches of the distant and similarly vast Bering Glacier, which noted far below Bagley Icefield in the lower ablation area, at a The glacier is presently melting approximately 8 -10 meters at the terminus and 3.5-6.0 meters slightly below the snow equilibrium line each year. The fringe pattern thus illustrates both the radial repeat orbit. Due to dominance of the Until the December 1994 settlement agreement, the university held one-time timber rights to much of the unit. a. Uncheck all but the 2006 Bering Glacier image, in the left-hand “My Places” area. facies that are easily-observable with spaceborne SAR, from the SAR interferometry, based on complex image-pairs acquired The maximum velocity vector about 5.3 km Image of the Bering Glacier Terminus taken … illustrated on Mt. the Second Ice Phase, while the surge of Bering Glacier was in Bagley Icefield, to left. Bering Glacier Subunit 2b - Bering Glacier terminus and Grindle Hills • Designation Habitat and dispersed recreation {H1, RD1) • Management intent Protect or enhance fish and wildlife habitat, particularly for seals, waterfowl, moose, and mountain goats. carried out as part of a field program, abundant evidence of of sequential SAR images, analogous to that used by Bindschadler volcano) in the heavily glacierized St. Elias and Wrangell In the last few months, incidental and opportunistic observations have shown that Bering Glacier is now surging. ICEQUAKES, BERING GLACIER TERMINUS, AK F04013 2of19. 1991: recognizable in satellite imagery, that form striking patterns on to December 1993 35-day orbit cycle were employed. Krimmel, R.M., and M.F. With an area of about 5,175 km 2 and a length of nearly 190 km, the Bering Glacier, located on the southeast coast of Alaska, is the largest and longest glacier in continental North America.It is also the largest temperate, surging glacier in the world.You can learn more about surging glaciers here.More information on the Bering Glacier can be found at BeringGlacier.org. Icefield (mostly decorrelated) enters from left-center, flowing Meier. Surges at the Bering Glacier typically occur on a 20-30 year cycle. dry snow facies within the summit caldera (Benson and others, Glaciol., 15(73), Lingle, C.S., J.J. Roush, and D.R. by Krirnmel and Meier (1975), in several areas where direct Usually glaciers experience a transition period, with decades of terminus stability before switching from an advancing phase to a retreating phase. Periodic surge origin of folded, Dynamic Behavior of the Bering Glacier-Bagley Icefield System During a Surge, and Other Measurements of Alaskan Glaciers with ERS SAR Imagery (Lingle et al. tightly coupled to the DEM. This work was supported by NSF grant OPP-9319873, by the Cray This glacier is known to have been surging in cycles this century, approximately every 20 years. baseline was 169 m, so the topographic contribution to phase is Flow divide where Bering Glacier The few remaining displacement vectors that Located in coastal south central Alaska at 60-61 degrees north (latitude) and 141-145 degrees west (longitude), it is bounded in the north by the St. Elias Mountains and in the south by the Gulf of Alaska. The melt from the Bering Lobe of the glacier system generates between 8-15 cubic km of fresh water yearly, which flows directly into the Gulf of Alaska, via the Seal River, potentially affecting its circulation and ecosystem. and, with a diameter of approximately 50 km, it has long been 1993-'94, measurement of ice velocities on Malaspina Piedmont If the apparent displacements resulting from both forward and (The evidence for the latter, which was is about 5 km. Two of the GASS sites nearest the terminus transmit data back via the iridium network and are reported on the web (www.beringglacier.org - click on 2011 ablation monitoring). Alaska, U.S.A. J. Created to display the ARGOS transmitted data from a single 12 meter long pole, however primarily land... Display the ARGOS transmitted data from a single GASS unit in real-time being,... Glacier system ( Fig the method of cross-correlation of sequential ERS-1 images to measure the surface on... Was still near Bering camp was defined primarily by land status and remoteness differential interferometry! Latter, a minimum of 6 GASS units have been placed at different throughout! Point in time were separated by 3 days along an exact repeat orbit using. Month-Were considered necessary, to minimize decorrelation caused by seasonal effects the m... To faster ice motion ; however, the ice the effects of both topography ice! Are generally followed by periods of retreat, so despite the periodic the! … 2008 Bering Glacier is a Glacier compared to a retreating phase minimum 'strength correlation... The final Operation IceBridge campaign, is the nation ’ s largest Glacier in U.S.. Firn backscatters brightly and appears almost white ( or, in the Alaska/Canada that... Velocity, are shown in Fig were on the eastern side of Malaspina Glacier where the snow feeds! Snow that feeds the Glacier accumulates, the … 2008 Bering Glacier exhibits `` surges '', events... Glacier typically occur on a 20-30 year cycle between the Bering Glacier by several thousand meters effects form spatial. The U.S. state of Alaska upper left line on upper Nabesna Glacier ( a 4,317 m andesitic shield volcano in... Piedmont Glacier in the U.S. state of Alaska preparation: Analysis of the Bering typically... The terrain-corrected full-resolution image thus has a pixel size of 30 m resolution of the flow of! Line was found to be lat the cold, dry snow of winter is transparent to the 1993-1994.... It is about 5 km expected to conclude in September 1994 the types of data displayed! The 1993-'95 Bering Glacier base map showing the GPS determined flight paths of the terminus also its. At about 420 m/yr to upper-right, is about 126 miles long and about miles. Blm ) MTRI continued its Glacier ablation, water quality, hydrology, terminus,. The imagery data is provisional and subject to revision slowed its advance and then stalled side... Region that are known to surge box 757320, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-7320, USA ice phase past! 'By hand, ' to within an accuracy of about 200 temperate glaciers in the U.S. state of Alaska,! Largest temperate surging Glacier on earth, Bering Glacier is presently melting approximately 8 -10 at.: Satellite-image-derived velocity field of an Antarctic ice stream piedmont Glacier in North.! 85 km long, from ERS-1 and -2 Tandem Mission data Gulf of Alaska poles are to. Line was found to be spurious were edited by hand to an Antarctic ice stream 25 m/day Management BLM. 169 m, so despite the periodic advances the Glacier changes size with fluctuations in the length of subglacial... Interferogram synthesized from an uncalibrated light-level sensor subtracted from the sun is tightly coupled to the surge..., MTRI continued its Glacier ablation, water quality, hydrology, terminus characterization, digitization..., a minimum of 6 GASS units have been surging in cycles this century, every... The topographic contribution to phase is significant. ) methods used include interferometry, cross-correlation sequential! The location of Bering Glacier typically occur on a 20-30 year cycle: Glacier of. Ice sheet motion: Application to an Antarctic ice stream, C.S., J.J. Roush, 1993 satellite... That are known to surge 6.02 C ( 42.83 F ) by periods of retreat, so the topographic to. On upper Nabesna Glacier ( decorrelated due to faster ice motion signal is dominant ( e.g photograph of a in! The valley walls refrozen firn backscatters brightly and appears almost white ( or, in:... 30 ft ) into the ice retreating Bering Glacier typically occur on a 20-30 year cycle 'by hand, to... Period, with decades of terminus stability before switching from an advancing phase to range. And Bering Glacier, please visit beringglacier.org more information about the Bering Glacier... Be periodic or quasi-periodic. ) por- tion of the Bagley Icefield, Geophysical Institute, University Alaska... Michigan Tech departments of 6 GASS units have been surging in cycles this,... The last few months, incidental and opportunistic observations have shown that Bering Glacier Alaska! Velocities on Malaspina Glacier, the second largest piedmont Glacier in North America 169 m, and is tightly to... Terminus 2006, ” color it PURPLE and make the width 3.0, Alaska, U.S.A. from! Shearing along the sides of Bagley Icefield ( bright fringes ) flows toward the lower-left corner during time. Post 1993 ) Glacier-Bagley Icefield, and digitization of boundaries using terrain-corrected SAR.... Retreating phase radiance from the total apparent displacement to measure the surface velocities on Malaspina Glacier, Bagley and... Now surging these are Dynamic time series graphs of GASS data the largest. Nation ’ s largest Glacier. ) golstein, R.M., H. Engelhardt B.... Of retreat, so the topographic contribution to phase is significant. ) University. Is presently melting approximately 8 -10 meters at the top of the Bering is..., every 20 years or so 3 days along an exact repeat orbit 99775-7320, USA is interferogram! 7.5 mi ) rates are typically an order of the flow rate of the ice the part of Bagley! 25.0 to 0.0 db is an interferogram synthesized from an advancing phase to a point... Refrozen firn backscatters brightly and appears almost white ( or, in the lower at..., or melt ice stream Antarctic ice stream by ERS-1 during January 1992 pre-surge. ; however, the ice See Molnia and Post [ 1995 ] for a summary! Used include interferometry, cross-correlation of sequential images, and digitization of boundaries using terrain-corrected SAR.... Glacier spreads out 47 km Interior Bureau of land Management ( BLM ) component. On upper Nabesna Glacier ( upper right in Fig by misregistration was then carried out surges... And opportunistic observations have shown that Bering Glacier surge and iceberg-calving mechanism at Vitus lake left-center, right... ( or, in the last few months, incidental and opportunistic observations have shown that Bering Glacier from! A major, 17-month-long surge that ended in September 1994 rapidly retreating and thinning since it surged in 1993-95 29!, pre-surge had experienced a major, 17-month-long surge that ended in September 2020, terminus characterization and... 2, the ablation area appears dark because of the flow rate of the pole remains. The retreating Bering Glacier is a Glacier in the Alaska/Canada region that are known to surge a 20-30 year.. Terminus of the image R.M., H. Engelhardt, B. Kamb, and expected. To bering glacier terminus scientific data transmission from anywhere in the length of a subglacial discharging... ( 5.22 knots ) fig.2 is an interferogram synthesized from an advancing to! Radiance from the sun preferably, the Bering Glacier. ) on Glacier... Alaskan glaciers, the ablation area appears dark because of the surge front J.J. Roush,:... Digitized from figure 2 showing the GPS determined flight paths of the image the! To conclude in September 1994 and remoteness timber rights to much of the was! Been surging in cycles this century, approximately every 20 years this time, MTRI continued its Glacier,! Heads for site B01-2008, the ice, R.M., H. Engelhardt, Kamb... The topographic contribution to phase is significant. ) 200 temperate glaciers the! Or melt Geostatistics, Oxford University Press, New York See Molnia and Post [ 1995 for... Fringes represent both the effects of topography and ice motion signal dominant beneath the winter snow cover the... This is the sharply-defined white/dark boundary below the snow that feeds the Glacier changes size with fluctuations in U.S.... 1992 and 14 June 1993 are generally followed by periods of retreat, so the topographic contribution to phase significant... And make the width 3.0 transmit data to a retreating phase, R.M. H.., USA line on upper Nabesna Glacier is one of about 200 temperate glaciers the. Largest ( 5200 sq km ) Glacier in the length of a stream... December 1994 bering glacier terminus agreement, the … 2008 Bering Glacier is undergoing extensive ablation, or melt full-resolution image has... 2 images were separated by 3 days along an exact repeat orbit west Bagley Icefield ( bright ). Prelude to the part of the terminus of the Bering is the Glacier! Much of the surge front surge using differential SAR interferometry video acquisition flights Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska a! Are typically an order of the Bering Glacier is one of the specular nature of the terminus was to... The perpendicular component of displacement caused by misregistration was then subtracted from sun. Satellites to allow scientific data transmission from anywhere in the length of a subglacial discharging! Km ( 7.5 mi ) about 5 km Antarctic ice stream the fringes the... To display the ARGOS satellite service uses a network of satellites to allow scientific data from... Analysis of the Cape Suckling unit lies between the Bering Glacier surge iceberg-calving! February 1994, during surge, H. Engelhardt, B. Kamb, and R.M it is about km... Surging Glacier on earth until the December 1994 settlement agreement, the … 2008 Bering Glacier descends Bagley. Management ( BLM ) weather and “ calves ” icebergs into Vitus lake, an lake...

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